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Temporary hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium bicarbonates in it. Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium in it.
Hard water contains calcium ions and magnesium ions. Soap does not give lather with hard water easily because it reacts with the calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water to form insoluble calcium and magnesium salts.